Types of Roofing

Types of Roofing

Types of Roofing is not to be confused with types of roofing materials. Types of Roofing defines what types of roofing materials can be used and where. There are basically two main types of roofing defined by the pitch or slope of the roof: Steep-Sloped Roofing and Low Sloped or Flat Roofing. Roofing materials are designed for one or the other.

Flat Roofing is also referred to as Low-Sloped Roofing by many in the roofing industry. This can be confusing because the term Low-Sloped Roofing can mean additional installation procedures and materials are needed when installing Steep-Sloped Roofing materials on roofs with lower pitches.

Sometimes Steep-Sloped and Flat roofing materials are expressed as Residential and Commercial roofing materials. But Steep-Sloped as well as Flat Roofing materials are installed on both residential and commercial roofs.

Residential actually describes types of structures such as single family homes, townhomes, duplexes, etc. as constructed using the International Residential Code (IRC). Commercial describes types of structures such as apartment buildings, condos, office buildings, warehouses, shopping malls, etc. as constructed using the International Building Code (IBC).

Many in the roofing industry use the term Residential Roofing Products to describe Steep-Sloped Roofing Materials. The term generally means roofing materials that are designed to shed water rapidly with no standing water and are individually fastened to a Steep-Sloped Roof with fasteners. A Roofing Contractor who describes himself as a Residential Roofing Company means he installs roofs mainly on residential structures and specializes in the installation of roofing materials designed for Steep-Sloped Roofing.

Commercial Roofing Products are also used by many to describe Flat Roofing Materials. The term generally means roofing materials that are designed to withstand the slow drainage of water without developing leaks. Commercial roofing products are generally rolled roofing membranes or sheets that are adhered to a roof by means of tar, asphalt, glue, heat welded, etc. and have seams that are also completely sealed together. A Roofing Contractor who describes himself as a Commercial Roofing Company means he installs roofs mainly on commercial structures and specializes in the installation of roofing materials designed for Flat Roofing.

As you can see, this all can be confusing to both consumers and roofers alike. Below we try to clarify and define some roofing terms used when trying to describe types of roofing and/or roofing materials.

Again, types of Roofing is not to be confused with types of roofing materials. Types of Roofing defines what types of roofing materials can be used and where. There are basically two main types of roofing defined by the pitch or slope of the roof: Steep-Sloped Roofing and Flat Roofing. Roofing materials are designed for one or the other.

There are three different types of roofing within Steep-Sloped Roofing: Low-Sloped Roofing, High-Sloped Roofing and Mansard Roofing that are also defined by the pitch or slope of the roof.

The Type of Roofing is defined by the pitch of the roof and the type of materials that are commonly used for that pitch range. The slope or pitch of a roof is defined as the ratio of the rise to the run of the rafters. For an example a 4" rise in a 12" run is expressed as 4:12.

(1) Flat Roofing generally refers to roofs with slopes less than 1:12. However many, including myself, consider anything under a 2:12 pitch as Flat Roofing since only rolled or sheet roofing products and some Standing Seam Metal Roofing Materials are permitted on this low of a pitched roof.

(2) Steep-Sloped Roofing generally refers to roofs having slopes of 1:12 and over. There are three sub categories of Steep-Sloped Roofing:

Low-Sloped Roofing is generally considered below a 4:12 pitch down to a 2:12 pitch. A 1:12 pitch is sometimes included in this category. Applying Steep-Sloped roofing materials on a Low-Sloped Roof usually requires additional underlayments and in some cases different attachment methods.

High-Sloped Roofing is generally considered from 4:12 up to 21:12 pitch. This is the standard slope that most Steep-Sloped roofing materials are designed for.

Mansard Roofing is generally considered 21:12 pitch and over. This very steep slope usually requires additional fastening methods for Steep-Sloped roofing materials. The term Mansard Roofing, over the years, has come to mean a very steep roof to roofers, although its true definition describes a type of architecture.

Do not work on roofs without the proper rubber soled shoes and safety harness. Do not even think about working on slopes with more than a 5:12 pitch unless you have experience and feel comfortable walking where your footing is less than sure. At 5:12 and more, sliding or slipping on a roof becomes imminent and the danger of falling greatly increases. It is better to leave the installation of roofing to the professional roofers who have the experience and the equipment to walk around on steeper sloped roofs.

The steeper the roof is the more time it takes to install roofing materials. Installing roofing materials on even a 7:12 or 8:12 roof is far slower than on a 4:12 or 5:12 pitched roof. The steeper a roof is, the slower the installation is, and can even come to a crawl on very steep roofs.

Common roofing materials used for Flat Roofing and for Steep-Sloped Roofing and the minimum pitch or slope generally required for proper installation are:

Flat Roofing Materials

Roofs are very important part of any type of commercial and home construction. Roofs help protect the interiors from the harsh sun, rain, snow, blizzards, in short environmental conditions. Roofs have a long historic connection and a particular architectural roof types tells one more about the cultural influences of a region. There are many things that require particular roofing types, like a letter box, to a church, a stadium, and even a bus stop. In a home, the roof protects the house from environmental conditions. In a garden, roofs protect the conservatory from cold, wind, and rain, but allows sunlight to reach the plants under it. The roofing type in a veranda may help protect the area from sunlight. Thus, according to the various needs, there are different types of roofing.

Gable Roof

The gable roof is one of the most popular types of roofs for homes. This roofing has two surfaces that are of the same size. They are pitched at the same angle, back-to-back. This makes a ridge at the top and forms a triangular roof. This type is a very cheap design and easy to make. It provides good ventilation and more ceiling space. However, it is not good for high wind areas, as it can suffer from damage.

Cross Gabled Roof

The cross gabled roof is similar to the gable roof, only that it has two parts that cross. The two roof sections are put together at a right angle. The two ridges formed are perpendicular to each other. The length, pitches, and heights of the two roofs may or may not differ from each other. You can use this roofing type for Tudor and Cape Cod style homes.

Flat Roof

The flat roof, as the name suggests, is flat, but has a slight slope to assist in shedding of water. These are sometimes referred to as ‘low slope roofs’. These roofs require fewer materials while building, and therefore, are more economical. However, you may need to re-roof these more often, as the materials last for about 10 to 20 years. Also, if the pooled water is not cleared regularly, the roof may get damaged. If you live in areas that receive more rain and snow, this roof is not an ideal choice.

Mansard Roof

This a popular roof type that was made by architect Francois Mansart in the 1600s in France. This type of roof has two distinctly different slopes on each side. The upper portion has a low slope, so that just enough water run-off can occur. The low slope cannot be seen from the ground. The lower part of the roof has a steep pitch with dormers attached. This roofing offers a lot of attic space. It also provides additional space known as the ‘garret’. If you live in heavy snowfall areas, this type is not recommended. The snow can build up on the low slope portion and cause strain on the bracing.

Hipped Roof

This type is similar to gable roofs with all sides of the slopes meeting the walls of the house. You can use this type if you live in areas of high winds or hurricanes. They have a good internal bracing and are not easily peeled off. Hipped roofs offer less internal roof space, thus providing less storage areas.

Cross Hip Roof

This is similar to the hipped roofs. This type has two parts that cross. The two roof sections meet at a point that is called a ‘valley’.

Pyramidal Hip Roof

This is a hipped roof type that forms a pyramid shape. There are four equal triangles that meet at a single point at the top of the roof.

Slatbox Roof

This one is similar to a gable roof. It has two sides that are not symmetrical to each other.

Shed Roof

The shed roof has a single roof face that slopes down the entire structure. It is sometimes referred to as lean-to roof. It is one of the easiest and the cheapest roofs to build.

Gambrel Roof

This type, like the Mansard roof, has two distinct slopes with two symmetrical sides. The top slope is lower and the bottom slope has a steep pitch that can be nearly vertical. It is also known as the barn roof, as it is commonly seen in hay barns. It has ample space for storage.

Bonnet Roof

The bonnet roof is the least common type of roof that you may come across. It is a type of modified hipped roof that is found in French Vernacular architecture. This architectural roof type is opposite to the Mansard types of roof. The upper slope is steeper than the bottom slope, and the bottom slope hangs over the house. Thus, it covers the open-sided porch and gives shelter from the sun and rain. These types are also known as ‘kicked eaves’ roof.

You need to take into consideration the various weather, environmental, and cost factors while choosing the type of roofing.

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